KEMI InterpretersLink

The following KEMI scripting languages can be used to write SIP routing logic for Kamailio:

  • JavaScript
  • Lua
  • Python
  • Python3
  • Ruby
  • Squirrel

A configuration file for Kamailio that uses a KEMI scripting language has the glabal parameters, loading modules and module parameters in the native scripting and sets the value of cfgengine to the KEMI scripting language identifier.

The KEMI scripting language identifiers are:

  • jsdt - for JavaScript
  • lua - for Lua
  • python - for Python
  • python3 - for Python3
  • ruby - for Ruby
  • sqlang - for Squirrel

JavaScript KEMI InterpreterLink

It is implemented by app_jsdt module. The JavaScript interpreter is imported inside the module from DukTape project, therefore it doesn't require to install any external libraries.

To use it, set inside kamailio.cfg:

loadmodule "app_jsdt.so"
modparam("app_jsdt", "load", "/path/to/script.js")
cfgengine "jsdt"

Inside the JavaScript script, following functions have a predefined role:

  • ksr_request_route() - is executed by Kamailio core every time a SIP request is received. If this function is not defined, then Kamailio will write error messages. This is equivalent of request_route {} from kamailio.cfg.
  • ksr_reply_route() - is executed by Kamailio core every time a SIP Response (reply) is received. If this function is not defined, then Kamailio will not write error messages. This is equivalent of reply_route {} from kamailio.cfg.
  • ksr_onsend_route() - is executed by Kamailio core every time a SIP request (and optionally for a response) is sent out. If this function is not defined, then Kamailio will not write error messages. This is equivalent of onsend_route {} from kamailio.cfg.
  • branch route callback - the name of the JavaScript function to be executed instead of a branch route has to be provided as parameter to KSR.tm.t_on_branch(…)
  • onreply route callback - the name of the JavaScript function to be executed instead of an onreply route has to be provided as parameter to KSR.tm.t_on_reply(…)
  • failure route callback - the name of the JavaScript function to be executed instead of a failure route has to be provided as parameter to KSR.tm.t_on_failure(…)
  • branch failure route callback - the name of the JavaScript function to be executed instead of an event route for branch failure has to be provided as parameter to KSR.tm.t_on_branch_failure(…)
  • event route callback - the name of the JavaScript function to be exectued instead of module specific event_route blocks is provided via event_callback parameter of that module

A complete example of using JavaScript as KEMI languages is offered by the next two files:

The file kamailio-basic-kemi.cfg has to be saved as kamailio.cfg and inside it add after the first line:

#!define WITH_CFGJSDT

The file kamailio-basic-kemi-jsdt.js has to be saved to local disk and the load parameter for app_jsdt module inside kamailio.cfg has to be updated to point to it. Then run kamailio with this kamailio.cfg.

The documentation for app_jsdk is available at:

Lua KEMI InterpreterLink

It is implemented by app_lua module. The Lua interpreter is linked from liblua library, supported Lua versions: 5.1 and 5.2.

loadmodule "app_lua.so"
modparam("app_lua", "load", "/path/to/script.lua")
cfgengine "lua"

Inside the Lua script, following functions have a predefined role:

  • ksr_request_route() - is executed by Kamailio core every time a SIP request is received. If this function is not defined, then Kamailio will write error messages. This is equivalent of request_route {} from kamailio.cfg.
  • ksr_reply_route() - is executed by Kamailio core every time a SIP Response (reply) is received. If this function is not defined, then Kamailio will not write error messages. This is equivalent of reply_route {} from kamailio.cfg.
  • ksr_onsend_route() - is executed by Kamailio core every time a SIP request (and optionally for a response) is sent out. If this function is not defined, then Kamailio will not write error messages. This is equivalent of onsend_route {} from kamailio.cfg.
  • branch route callback - the name of the Lua function to be executed instead of a branch route has to be provided as parameter to KSR.tm.t_on_branch(…)
  • onreply route callback - the name of the Lua function to be executed instead of an onreply route has to be provided as parameter to KSR.tm.t_on_reply(…)
  • failure route callback - the name of the Lua function to be executed instead of a failure route has to be provided as parameter to KSR.tm.t_on_failure(…)
  • branch failure route callback - the name of the Lua function to be executed instead of an event route for branch failure has to be provided as parameter to KSR.tm.t_on_branch_failure(…)
  • event route callback - the name of the Lua function to be exectued instead of module specific event_route blocks is provided via event_callback parameter of that module

Note: besides the new KEMI Lua KSR module, the old sr Lua module exported by app_lua is still available.

A complete example of using Lua as KEMI languages is offered by the next two files:

The file kamailio-basic-kemi.cfg has to be saved as kamailio.cfg and inside it add after the first line:

#!define WITH_CFGLUA

The file kamailio-basic-kemi-lua.lua has to be saved to local disk and the load parameter for app_lua module inside kamailio.cfg has to be updated to point to it. Then run kamailio with this kamailio.cfg.

The documentation for app_lua is available at:

Basic KEMI Lua Scripting ExampleLink

The file kamailio.cfg with global parameters and module settings:

#!KAMAILIO

####### Global Parameters #########

debug=3
log_stderror=yes
fork=yes
children=2

memdbg=5
memlog=5

auto_aliases=no

listen=udp:127.0.0.1:5060

loadmodule "jsonrpcs.so"
loadmodule "kex.so"
loadmodule "tm.so"
loadmodule "tmx.so"
loadmodule "sl.so"
loadmodule "pv.so"
loadmodule "maxfwd.so"
loadmodule "textops.so"
loadmodule "xlog.so"
loadmodule "ctl.so"
loadmodule "debugger.so"
loadmodule "app_lua.so"

# ----------------- setting module-specific parameters ---------------

# ----- jsonrpcs params -----
modparam("jsonrpcs", "pretty_format", 1)

# ----- tm params -----
# auto-discard branches from previous serial forking leg
modparam("tm", "failure_reply_mode", 3)
# default retransmission timeout: 30sec
modparam("tm", "fr_timer", 30000)
# default invite retransmission timeout after 1xx: 120sec
modparam("tm", "fr_inv_timer", 120000)

# ----- debugger params -----
modparam("debugger", "cfgtrace", 1)

####### Routing Logic ########

modparam("app_lua", "load", "/etc/kamailio/kamailio.lua")

cfgengine "lua"

The file /etc/kamailio/kamailio.lua with the routing logic for runtime:

-- Kamailio - equivalent of routing blocks in Lua
-- KSR - the new dynamic object exporting Kamailio functions
-- sr - the old static object exporting Kamailio functions
--
-- SIP request routing
-- equivalent of request_route{}
function ksr_request_route()
    KSR.info("===== request - from kamailio lua script\n");

    if KSR.maxfwd.process_maxfwd(10) < 0 then
        KSR.sl.send_reply(483, "Too Many Hops");
        return;
    end

    -- KSR.sl.sreply(200, "OK Lua");

    KSR.pv.sets("$du", "sip:127.0.0.1:5080")
    KSR.tm.t_on_branch("ksr_branch_route_one");
    KSR.tm.t_on_reply("ksr_onreply_route_one");
    KSR.tm.t_on_failure("ksr_failure_route_one");

    if KSR.tm.t_relay() < 0 then
        KSR.sl.send_reply(500, "Server error")
    end
end

-- SIP response routing
-- equivalent of reply_route{}
function ksr_reply_route()
    KSR.info("===== response - from kamailio lua script\n");
end

-- branch route callback
-- equivalent of a branch_route{}
function ksr_branch_route_one()
    KSR.info("===== branch route - from kamailio lua script\n");
end

-- onreply route callback
-- equivalent of an onreply_route{}
function ksr_onreply_route_one()
    KSR.info("===== onreply route - from kamailio lua script\n");
end

-- failure route callback
-- equivalent of a failure_route{}
function ksr_failure_route_one()
    KSR.info("===== failure route - from kamailio lua script\n");
end

Python KEMI InterpreterLink

It is implemented by app_python module. The Python interpreter is linked from libpython, supported Python versions: 2.5, 2.6 and 3.x (via app_python3).

loadmodule "app_python.so"
modparam("app_python", "script_name", "/path/to/script.py")
cfgengine "python"

In the Python script you have to declare the global mod_init() method where to instantiate an object of a class that implements the other callback methods (functions) to be executed by Kamailio.

Inside the new class, the following methods are relevant:

  • ksr_request_route(self, msg) - is executed by Kamailio core every time a SIP request is received. If this function is not defined, then Kamailio will write error messages. This is equivalent of request_route {} from kamailio.cfg.
  • ksr_reply_route(self, msg) - is executed by Kamailio core every time a SIP Response (reply) is received. If this function is not defined, then Kamailio will not write error messages. This is equivalent of reply_route {} from kamailio.cfg.
  • ksr_onsend_route(self, msg) - is executed by Kamailio core every time a SIP request (and optionally for a response) is sent out. If this function is not defined, then Kamailio will not write error messages. This is equivalent of onsend_route {} from kamailio.cfg.
  • branch route callback - the name of the Python function to be executed instead of a branch route has to be provided as parameter to KSR.tm.t_on_branch(…)
  • onreply route callback - the name of the Python function to be executed instead of an onreply route has to be provided as parameter to KSR.tm.t_on_reply(…)
  • failure route callback - the name of the Python function to be executed instead of a failure route has to be provided as parameter to KSR.tm.t_on_failure(…)
  • branch failure route callback - the name of the Python function to be executed instead of an event route for branch failure has to be provided as parameter to KSR.tm.t_on_branch_failure(…)
  • event route callback - the name of the Python function to be exectued instead of module specific event_route blocks is provided via event_callback parameter of that module

Note: besides the new KEMI Python KSR module, the old Router Python module exported by app_python is still available.

A complete example of using Python as KEMI languages is offered by the next two files:

The file kamailio-basic-kemi.cfg has to be saved as kamailio.cfg and inside it add after the first line:

#!define WITH_CFGPYTHON

The file kamailio-basic-kemi-python.py has to be saved to local disk and the load parameter for app_python module inside kamailio.cfg has to be updated to point to it. Then run kamailio with this kamailio.cfg.

The documentation for app_python is available at:

Basic KEMI Python Scripting ExampleLink

The file kamailio.cfg with the global parameters and modules settings:

#!KAMAILIO

####### Global Parameters #########

debug=4
log_stderror=yes
fork=yes
children=2

memdbg=5
memlog=5

auto_aliases=no

listen=udp:127.0.0.1:5060

loadmodule "jsonrpcs.so"
loadmodule "kex.so"
loadmodule "tm.so"
loadmodule "tmx.so"
loadmodule "sl.so"
loadmodule "pv.so"
loadmodule "maxfwd.so"
loadmodule "textops.so"
loadmodule "xlog.so"
loadmodule "ctl.so"
loadmodule "mi_rpc.so"
loadmodule "debugger.so"
loadmodule "app_python.so"

# ----------------- setting module-specific parameters ---------------

# ----- tm params -----
# auto-discard branches from previous serial forking leg
modparam("tm", "failure_reply_mode", 3)
# default retransmission timeout: 30sec
modparam("tm", "fr_timer", 30000)
# default invite retransmission timeout after 1xx: 120sec
modparam("tm", "fr_inv_timer", 120000)

# ----- debugger params -----
modparam("debugger", "cfgtrace", 1)

####### Routing Logic ########

modparam("app_python", "load", "/etc/kamailio/kamailio.py")

cfgengine "python"

The file /etc/kamailio/kamailio.py with the routing logic for runtime:

import sys
import Router.Logger as Logger
import KSR as KSR

def dumpObj(obj):
    for attr in dir(obj):
        # KSR.info("obj.%s = %s\n" % (attr, getattr(obj, attr)));
        Logger.LM_INFO("obj.%s = %s\n" % (attr, getattr(obj, attr)));

def mod_init():
    KSR.info("===== from Python mod init\n");
    # dumpObj(KSR);
    return kamailio();

class kamailio:
    def __init__(self):
        KSR.info('===== kamailio.__init__\n')

    def child_init(self, rank):
        KSR.info('===== kamailio.child_init(%d)\n' % rank)
        return 0

    def ksr_request_route(self, msg):
        KSR.info("===== request - from kamailio python script\n");
        msg.rewrite_ruri("sip:alice@127.0.0.1:5080");
        KSR.tm.t_on_branch("ksr_branch_route_one");
        KSR.tm.t_on_reply("ksr_onreply_route_one");
        KSR.tm.t_on_failure("ksr_failure_route_one");
        KSR.sl.send_reply(100, "Trying")
        if KSR.tm.t_relay() < 0 :
            KSR.sl.send_reply(500, "Server error")
        return 1;

    def ksr_reply_route(self, msg):
        KSR.info("===== response - from kamailio python script\n");
        return 1;

    def ksr_branch_route_one(self, msg):
        KSR.info("===== branch route - from kamailio python script\n");
        return 1;

    def ksr_onreply_route_one(self, msg):
        KSR.info("===== onreply route - from kamailio python script\n");
        return 1;

    def ksr_failure_route_one(self, msg):
        KSR.info("===== failure route - from kamailio python script\n");
        return 1;

Ruby KEMI InterpreterLink

It is implemented by app_ruby module. The module requires libruby-dev in order to be compiled. The module was initially tested with libruby-2.3 and libruby-2.5.

loadmodule "app_ruby.so"
modparam("app_ruby", "load", "/path/to/script.rb")
cfgengine "ruby"

The documentation for app_ruby is available at:

Squirrel KEMI InterpreterLink

It is implemented by app_sqlang module. The Squirrel language interpreter is imported inside the module from Squirrel project, therefore it doesn't require to install any external libraries.

loadmodule "app_sqlang.so"
modparam("app_sqlang", "load", "/path/to/script.sq")
cfgengine "sqlang"

A complete example of using Squirrel as KEMI languages is offered by the next two files:

The file kamailio-basic-kemi.cfg has to be saved as kamailio.cfg and inside it add after the first line:

#!define WITH_CFGSQLANG

The file kamailio-basic-kemi-sqlang.sq has to be saved to local disk and the load parameter for app_sqlang module inside kamailio.cfg has to be updated to point to it. Then run kamailio with this kamailio.cfg.

The documentation for app_sqlang is available at:

KEMI FunctionsLink

Inside the routing script, the functions exported by Kamailio through KEMI are available via KSR module. With very few exceptions, the KEMI functions return either an integer or a bool value and can take up to six parameters of type string or integer.

The integer return code from a Kemi functions has to be evaluated with the following rules:

  • the value is greater than 0, then the function was successfully executed and a logical evaluation should be considered true
  • the value is less than 0, then the function was not successfully executed or the function was successfully executed and the a logical evaluation should be considered false
  • the value is equal to 0, then the execution of the KEMI script should be terminated (be careful with execution of exit() function from the embedded interpreter language, it may kill the interpreter completely, which in this case is Kamailio, resulting in shutting down Kamailio - hint: check KSR.x.exit())

The bool return code is expected to be evaluated as true or false inside the KEMI script.

If a function has void as return type in the signature, the it doesn't return any value.

Several functions may return a string or xval value, for example in the KSR.pv submodule to get the value of pseudo-variables. If a function returns xval, then the result value can be string, integer or null.

The convention for the parameters in the signature of the functions is to enclose in double quotes if the parameter has a string type and no quotes if the parameter has integer type.

Most of the functions exported through KEMI have an equivalent in the functions available in the native scripting language. Generic mapping rules:

  • if a parameter value is expected to be used as integer, then KEMI function has it as integer parameter (note: in the native scripting language, it used to be a rule that all parameters of the functions exported by modules to be provided as string)
  • if a function from native scripting language has variants with different number of parameters, then KEMI exports one function for each of the variants (to cope with the scripting languages that do not support variadic number of parameters). The names of the related functions are similar.

The available KEMI functions in a running instance of Kamailio can be listed via an RPC command. A matter of the interpreter used, one of the following commands needs to be run:

kamctl rpc app_jsdt.api_list
kamctl rpc app_lua.api_list
kamctl rpc app_python.api_list
kamctl rpc app_sqlang.api_list

Exporting C Function To KEMI InterpretersLink

Because Kamailio needs to load modules in order to export useful functions to KEMI, statical wrappers to C functions implemented in other modules cannot be used, because they will introduce dependencies on each embedded interpreter for all modules.

The implementation relies on defining a set of generic functions that are exported to each embedded interpreter, which are associated at startup with a Kamailio C functions. The lookup at runtime is by an integer index, therefore very fast.

Currently the association table size is 1024 (it means that there can be maximum 1024 Kamailio C functions exported to the interpreter by a configuration file). The number can be increased, but it should be fairly enough as all kamailio.cfg functions are around 1000 and it is no real use case to load all the modules at the same time for use in production. Also, many functions may not be exported to an embedded language, as they have native alternative in the embedded language.

Each existing component of Kamailio (e.g., module), can export new functions to KEMI in the following way:

  • declare an array of type sr_kemi_t
  • register it to KEMI in mod_register() function (or at startup for core components) using sr_kemi_modules_add()

The structure sr_kemi_t is declared in Kamailio core, the file kemi.h:

#define SR_KEMI_PARAMS_MAX  6

typedef struct sr_kemi {
    str mname; /* sub-module name */
    str fname; /* function name */
    int rtype; /* return type (supported SR_KEMIP_INT/BOOL) */
    void *func; /* pointer to the C function to be executed */
    int ptypes[SR_KEMI_PARAMS_MAX]; /* array with the type of parameters */
} sr_kemi_t;

Next C code snippet shows how sl module exports two functions:

  • C function sl_send_reply_str(…) is exported as sl.sreply(…)
  • C function send_reply(…) is exported as sl.freply(…)
static sr_kemi_t sl_kemi_exports[] = {
    { str_init("sl"), str_init("sreply"),
        SR_KEMIP_INT, sl_send_reply_str,
        { SR_KEMIP_INT, SR_KEMIP_STR, SR_KEMIP_NONE,
            SR_KEMIP_NONE, SR_KEMIP_NONE, SR_KEMIP_NONE }
    },
    { str_init("sl"), str_init("freply"),
        SR_KEMIP_INT, send_reply,
        { SR_KEMIP_INT, SR_KEMIP_STR, SR_KEMIP_NONE,
            SR_KEMIP_NONE, SR_KEMIP_NONE, SR_KEMIP_NONE }
    },

    { {0, 0}, {0, 0}, 0, NULL, { 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0 } }
};

int mod_register(char *path, int *dlflags, void *p1, void *p2)
{
    sr_kemi_modules_add(sl_kemi_exports);
    return 0;
}

Note that the exported array is ended by a sentinel of 0/NULL values for all fields.

Exported functions must take first parameter as sip_msg_t* type (which is the structure with the SIP message being processed), then followed by up to 6 int or str* parameters. When SR_KEMIP_NONE is given in the array with the types of parameters, it means there is no parameter from there on (some compilers may rise warning, so it is recommended to fill all 6 items in array).

The functions exported by Kamailio core are listed inside the array _sr_kemi_core from the file kemi.c.

Not all combinations of extra (after sip_msg_t*) parameters types are supported right now - currently the are:

  • 1 param - can be int of str*
  • 2 params - any combination of int or str*
  • 3 params - any combination of int or str*
  • 4 params - any combination of int or str*
  • 5 params - any combination of int or str*
  • 6 params - all have to be str* (other combinations to be added as needed)